Tungsten Electron Configuration sums up all the participants of the electrons. Tungsten is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Wolfram is the alternative name for Tungsten. Tungsten occurs in many alloys, which have numerous applications, including incandescent light bulb filaments, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Its hardness and high density make it suitable for military applications in penetrating projectiles. Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial catalysts.
Tungsten is the only metal in the third transition series that occurs in biomolecules, found in a few species of bacteria and archaea. However, Tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper metabolism and is somewhat toxic to most forms of animal life. In the raw state, Tungsten is a hard steel-grey metal that is often brittle and hard to work with. Tungsten exists in two primary crystalline forms: α and β. The former has a body-centered cubic structure and is the more stable form. The construction of the β phase is A15 cubic. It is metastable but coexists with the α phase at ambient conditions owing to non-equilibrium synthesis or stabilization.
Mostly, Tungsten is a non-reactive element, meaning it does not react with water, is immune to most acids and bases, and does not react with oxygen or air at room temperature. In an aqueous solution, tungstate gives the heteropoly acids and polyoxometalate anions under neutral and acidic conditions. Tungsten trioxide forms intercalation compounds with alkali metals. These are also bronzes. An example is sodium tungsten bronze.
Tungsten electron configuration
Electron Configuration is the placement of electrons in different orbits and orbitals of an atom in a specific order. Similarly, the pattern of distributing electrons in different trajectories of a Tungsten atom is Tungsten Electron Configuration. To configure the Tungsten electron configuration, we should know the atomic number of the Tungsten. Since Tungsten’s atomic number is 74, 74 electrons revolve around its orbits. We can perform W electron configuration in two significant ways, they are:
Orbit electron configuration (Bohr principle)
The Bohr principle is the popular technique to get to the button of the configuration of the v electron. In this principle, we distribute electrons in different orbits. K is the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, and N is the fourth. With n = 1 for the K orbit, each orbit has a 2n2 electron holding capacity. So, this is how we distribute the number of electrons in the following way:
- The electron storage capacity of the K orbit is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
- The electron carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
- The maximum electron retention capacity in the M orbit is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
- The greatest electron retention capacity in the N orbit is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
Hence, The W electron configuration in its ground state is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d4 6s2. And In short, It is [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2.
Orbit electron configuration (Aufbau principle)
The Aufbau approach involves configuring electrons at the sub-energy level. According to the Aufbau principle, electrons in an atom will initially complete the lowest energy orbital before gradually progressing to the higher energy orbitals. Letters S, P, D, and F represent the orbit. Here is a step-by-step guide to writing W Electron Configuration through orbital.
- To express the Tungsten electron configuration, we must first know how many electrons the W atom has.
- Since there are 74 electrons in a Tungsten atom, we’ll put all 74 electrons in orbitals around the nucleus of the Tungsten atom when we write the W electron configuration.
- The first two electrons of Tungsten enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital. The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons. So, the following six electrons enter the 2p orbital. The second orbit is now complete. So, the remaining electrons enter the third orbit.
- Then the two electrons will enter the 3s orbital, and the next six electrons will be in the 3p orbital of the third orbit. The 3p orbital is now complete. So, the next two electrons will enter the 4s orbital, and ten will enter the 3d orbital. The 3d orbital is now full. So, the following six electrons enter the 4p orbital. Then the next ten electrons will enter the 4d orbital.
- The 4d orbital is now full. So, the next eight electrons enter the 5p and 6s orbital, and the next fourteen will enter the 4f orbital. The 4f orbital is now full of electrons. So, the remaining four electrons will enter the 5d orbital. Therefore, the its electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d4 6s2.
How to write the orbital diagram for Tungsten?
To create an orbital diagram of an atom, you first need to know Hund’s and Pauli’s exclusion principles. Hund’s principle states that the electrons in different orbitals with the same energy are in such a way it is in the unpaired state of the maximum number, and the spin of the unpaired electrons will be one-way. And Pauli’s exclusion principle states that the value of four quantum numbers of two electrons in an atom cannot be the same.
- The 1s orbital contains two electrons. Then the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital just like the 1s orbital.
- Similarly, the next two electrons enter the 3s orbital just like the 1s orbital, and the next six electrons enter the 3p orbital just like the 2p orbital.
- Now the next five electrons will enter the 3d orbital in the clockwise direction, and the next five will join the 3d orbital in the anti-clockwise order.
- Then the next two electrons will enter the 5s orbital just like the 1s orbital, and the next ten will enter the 4d orbital just like the 3d orbital. The 4d orbital is now full of electrons.
- The following seven electrons will enter the 4f orbital in the clockwise direction, and the remaining seven will enter the 4f orbital in the anti-clockwise order.
- The 4f orbital is now full of electrons. So, the remaining four electrons enter the 5d orbital in the clockwise direction. It clearly shows the Tungsten orbital diagram.
Hence, Wolfram or Tungsten is an element of high density, including weights, counterweights, ballast keels for yachts, tail ballast for commercial aircraft, rotor weights for civil and military helicopters, and ballast in race cars for NASCAR and Formula One.