Scandium is a chemical element with the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. In 1879, It was discovered by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia. It is a metallic, silvery-white d-block element, previously categorized as a rare-earth element along with yttrium and lanthanides. It is present in most of the deposits of rare-earth and uranium compounds. But only a few mines worldwide can extract these ores.
Despite the 1937 attempt to manufacture metallic Scandium, applications for the metal materialized in the 1970s due to its scarcity and technical difficulties. Since then, Scandium’s use in aluminum alloys has remained its sole important application. Worldwide trade in scandium oxide occurs yearly in quantities of 15 to 20 tonnes.
Compounds made of Scandium have characteristics that fall between those of aluminum and yttrium. Similar to how beryllium and aluminum behave, magnesium and Scandium exhibit a diagonal relationship. The prevalent oxidation state in the chemical compounds of the elements in group 3 is 3.
Furthermore, Scandium is a soft metal with a silvery appearance. It develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when oxidized by air. Scandium is susceptible to weathering and dissolves slowly in most dilute acids. It does not react with a 1:1 mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and 48.0% hydrofluoric acid (HF), possibly due to the formation of an impermeable passive layer. Scandium turnings ignite in the air with a brilliant yellow flame to form scandium oxide.
In chemistry, Scandium Electron Configuration is the number of electrons in the orbits of the atom or molecules. Scandium Electron Configuration is the distribution of electrons in the orbital of an atom of Scandium. It is also known as the electron configuration of Scandium.
Electron configuration of Scandium
The electron configuration frequently depicts an atom’s orbitals in its ground state. But it also represents an atom that has ionized into a cationic or anionic species by accounting for electron deficits or surpluses in following electron shells.
Electron Configuration shows the placement of electrons in an element’s orbitals. It also displays the number of electrons in an atom and the number of electrons in each orbital.
Element configuration for atoms or molecules is defined by the number of electrons present in the orbit or shell. In the case of Scandium, there are 3 orbits and 17 electrons present in these orbits or shells. The distribution of electrons in shells is 2, 8, and 7.
Each orbital’s number of electrons is provided in superscript to the right of its name, and each orbital is listed in alphabetical order. Many physical and chemical properties of an element can be connected to its electron configuration. The valence electrons, which are electrons in the outermost shell, determine the chemistry of an element.
Talking about Sc electron configuration there are two ways to get through its electron configuration. They are:
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Bohr principle)
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Aufbau principle).
Orbital Electron Configuration
We can make a Scandium electron configuration. Niels Bohr, a scientist, was the first to propose a model for the atom’s orbit. In 1913, he proposed a model of the atom. There is a comprehensive description of the orbit there. The electrons in an atom journey in a circular path around the nucleus.
N number expresses the orbits in the Electron Configuration of Scandium. [n = 1,2,3,4 . . . The serial number of the orbit] K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, and N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2.
We must understand the orbit electron configuration for any element’s Sr electron configuration or electron configuration. The electrons in an atom circle the nucleus in a circular pattern.
- The electron storage capacity of the K orbit is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
- The electron-carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
- The maximum electron retention capacity in the M orbit is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
- The greatest electron retention capacity in the N orbit is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
Scandium has an atomic number of 21, meaning every scandium atom has 21 protons in its nucleus. The number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom is equal, so a neutral atom of scandium would have 21 electrons.
From elements 1 to 18, orbits precisely organize electrons. According to the Bohr atomic model, it is impossible to accurately anticipate the electron configuration of an element with an atomic number greater than 18.
Hence, The electron configuration of scandium in its ground state is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2, or The electron configuration of the Scandium ion can be represented by the distribution of electrons in the shell can be represented as [Ar] 3d¹ 4s².
How Many Valence Electrons are in Scandium?
The electron configuration of scandium shows that the last shell has two(4s2) electrons, and the d-orbital has a total of an electron(3d1). Therefore, the valence electrons of scandium(Sc) are three.
Facts about Scandium
i) It has thirteen radioisotopes. Most of Scandium’s radioactive isotopes have less than two minutes of half-lives.
ii) Scandium is the fiftieth most abundant element on Earth but is the 23rd most abundant element in the Sun.
iii) Mendeleev predicted the existence of Scandium between calcium and titanium because there was a gap in the atomic weights
To sum it up, the Scandium electron configuration can be expressed as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2, or it can also be represented as [Ar] 3d¹ 4s². The known isotopes of scandium range from 36Sc to 60Sc. The primary decay mode at masses lower than the only stable isotope, 45Sc, is electron capture, and the primary mode at masses above it is beta emission. We use The Aufbau Principle to write the Scandium electron configuration or the electron configuration of any component. The Aufbau Principle fills electrons with the increasing energy level of orbitals.