Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the minor dense metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, Lithium is highly reactive and flammable and must be stored in a vacuum, inert atmosphere, or inert liquid or mineral oil.
The mixture of lithium Chloride and potassium Chloride electrolytically isolates Lithium metal. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the primary source of Lithium. Lithium is present in ocean water, and brines are a significant source of obtaining it due to their solubility as an ion.
Furthermore, the lithium atom verges on instability since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, Lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements, even though its nuclei are very light. The lithium atom has one Lithium Valence Electron.
Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel, and aluminum production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three-quarters of lithium production. It is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain.
Certain lithium compounds, i.e., lithium salts, are necessary for psychiatric medication, primarily for bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, that does not improve after using antidepressants. These disorders sometimes reduce the risk of suicide. An individual can take Lithium orally.
Similarly, Lithium is the third element in the periodic table and the second element in group-1. The standard atomic mass of Lithium is 6.938. Lithium is also an alkali metal, and its atoms participate in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of Lithium. Hopefully, after reading this article, you will know more about this.
How many valence electrons are in Lithium?
The valence electrons are the total number of electrons in the last orbit. In simple words, the Valence electrons of Lithium are the total number of electrons in the previous shell after the electron configuration of Lithium. The valence electrons determine the element’s properties and participate in forming bonds.
To calculate the Lithium Valence Electrons, we should follow the following rules.
Step1: Determine the total number of electrons in Lithium. The atomic number of Lithium is the total number of electrons. That means an Atomic number of Lithium is 3. Its electronic configuration is 2,1. So, it must lose one electron to attain stability and get an electronic arrangement like the noble gas Helium. Thus, its valency is 1.
Step2: Perform electron configuration of Lithium. Using The orbital arrangement of electrons (Bohr principle) and The orbital structure of electrons (Aufbau principle), we find the electron configuration. According to Bohr Principle, The Electron Configuration of Lithium is 1s²2s¹.
Step3: Determine the valence shell and calculate the total electrons.
To sum up, Lithium has a single electron in the second principal energy level, so we say that the lithium valence electron is one.
What is the definition of electron configuration?
The distribution of electrons in an element’s atomic orbitals is described by its electron configuration. The number of electrons in the atom and the number in each orbital are displayed in electron configurations. The number of electrons in each orbital is given in superscript to the right of the orbital name, and each orbital is stated in the order.
The electron configuration is often used to illustrate an atom’s orbitals in its ground state. Still, it may also represent an atom with ionization into a cationic or anion by accounting for electrons deficit or surplus in subsequent electron shells. An element’s many physical and chemical properties can be traced back to its electron configuration. The valence electrons, which are electrons in the outermost shell, determine the element’s specific chemistry.
There are two ways for ar electron configuration, they are:
- The orbital arrangement of electrons (Bohr principle)
- The orbital arrangement of electrons (Aufbau principle)
How many electrons, protons, and neutrons does a Lithium atom have?
The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the middle. The atomic number of Lithium is 3. The atomic number is the number of protons. That is, the number of protons in Lithium is three. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, a lithium atom has a total of three electrons.
The difference between the number of atomic masses and the number of atoms results in the number of neutrons in an element. That is neutron number (n) = nuclear mass number (A) – atomic number (Z).
We know that the atomic number of Lithium is three, and the atomic mass number is about 7(6.938). Neutron (n) = 7 – 3 = 4. Therefore, the number of neutrons in Lithium is 4.
Hence, Lithium is an alkali metal. It is also available in brown dwarf substellar objects and certain anomalous orange stars. Because Lithium is present in cooler, less-massive brown dwarfs, it does not exist in hotter red dwarf stars, its presence in the stars’ spectra in the “lithium test,” as both are smaller than the Sun. It was discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian chemist and statesman José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva in a mine on the island of Utö, Sweden. Lithium compounds shine a striking crimson color when placed over a flame, but when the metal burns intensely, the pet becomes a brilliant silver. Lithium will ignite and burn in oxygen when exposed to water or water vapor. At last, The Lithium Valence Electron is 1.