The electron configuration of Uranium occurs using two principles. In this article, we are going to talk about it in brief. Uranium is a chemical element with the symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. It is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of Uranium are unstable. The half-lives of its naturally occurring isotopes range between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years.
The most common isotopes in natural uranium-238 and uranium-235 (which have 143 neutrons). Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than lead and slightly lower than gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock, and water. It is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.
Furthermore, Uranium is a colorant in uranium glass, producing lemon yellow to green colors. Uranium glass fluoresces green in ultraviolet light. It was also used for tinting and shading in early photography. Uranium metal reacts with almost all non-metal elements (except for the noble gases) and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature. Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve Uranium, but non-oxidizing acids other than hydrochloric acid attack the element very slowly.
Electron Configuration Uranium
Electron configuration is advantageous in the field of chemistry, where it helps in understanding the chemical reaction, and also it helps in simplifying the structure of a periodic table. Today in this topic, we will discuss the Uranium electronic configuration.
We follow the Aufbau and Bohr principles to prepare the Uranium electronic configuration. The Aufbau principle states that the electrons fill lower-energy atomic orbitals before filling higher-energy ones. And the Bohr Principle states that an atom consists of a positively charged nucleus that revolves around one or more electrons of quantized energy.
Each orbital’s number of electrons is provided in superscript to the right of its name, and each orbital is listed in alphabetical order. An element’s many physical and chemical properties can be connected to its electron configuration. The valence electrons, which are electrons in the outermost shell, determine the chemistry of an element.
Electron configuration Uranium takes place in two ways, they are:
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Bohr principle)
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Aufbau principle)
The electrons' orbital configuration (Bohr principle)
The electrons in an atom journey in a circular path around the nucleus. The term “orbit” refers to these circular paths (shells). The number n represents these orbits [n = 1,2,3,4,…, the orbit’s serial number].
The first orbit is designated by the letter K, the second by the letter L, the third by the letter M, and the fourth by the letter N. Each orbit has a 2n2 electron holding capacity.
- The capacity of the K orbit to store electrons is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
- The L orbit’s electron carrying capacity is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
- In the M orbit, the greatest electron holding capacity is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
- In the N orbit, the maximum electron holding capacity is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
Uranium has an atomic number of 92. The number of electrons in Uranium is ninety-two. Therefore keep that in mind while designing an electrical arrangement for it. As a result, the first shell of the uranium atom will have two electrons, the second orbit will have eight, and the third shell will have eight electrons, according to the Bohr atomic model. We cannot predict the electron configuration of an element with an atomic number greater than 18.
Hence, The electron configuration Uranium in its ground state is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f3 6s2 6p6 6d1 7s2. And In short, the Uranium electron configuration is [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
The electrons' orbital configuration (Aufbau principle)
The Aufbau approach involves configuring electrons at the sub-energy level. According to the Aufbau principle, electrons in an atom will initially complete the lowest energy orbital before gradually progressing to the higher energy orbitals. Letters S, P, D, and F represent the orbit. Here is a step-by-step guide to writing W Electron Configuration through orbital.
- To express the electron configuration of Uranium, we must first know how many electrons its atom has.
- Since there are 92 electrons in a Uranium atom, we’ll put all 92 electrons in orbitals around the nucleus of the Uranium atom when we write the Uranium electron configuration.
- The first two electrons of Uranium enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital. The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons. So, the following six electrons enter the 2p orbital. The second orbit is now complete. So, the remaining electrons enter the third orbit.
- Then the two electrons will enter the 3s orbital, and the next six electrons will be in the 3p orbital of the third orbit. The 3p orbital is now complete. So, the next two electrons will enter the 4s orbital, and ten will enter the 3d orbital. The 3d orbital is now full. So, the following six electrons enter the 4p orbital. Then the next ten electrons will enter the 4d orbital.
- The 4d orbital is now complete. So, the next eight electrons enter the 5p and 6s orbital. Then the next fourteen electrons will enter the 4f orbital. The 4f orbital is now full of electrons. So, the next ten electrons will enter the 5d orbital, and the next six will enter the 6p orbital.
- The 6p orbital is now complete. So, the next two electrons will enter the 7s orbital. Then the remaining four electrons will enter the 5f orbital. But the 6d and 5f orbitals have very close energies. Due to the fascination of electrons in the nucleus, an electron moves from 5f to 6d.
- So, the next three electrons will enter the 5f orbital, and the remaining one electron will enter the 6d orbital. Therefore, the uranium full electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f3 6s2 6p6 6d1 7s2.
Henceforth, Uranium Electron Configuration is the distribution of electrons in a uranium atom. The primary application of Uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. In the civilian sector, Uranium fuels the nuclear power plants.