Titanium electron configuration is the process of distributing electrons in their respective shells. Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is present only as an oxide and as a transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistance to corrosion in seawater, aqua regia, and chlorine.
It can be alloyed with iron, aluminum, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.
In 1971, William Gregor from Cornwall, Great Britain, discovered Titanium which Martin Heinrich Klaproth named after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within several mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, widely distributed in the Earth’s crust and lithosphere. It is found in almost all living things and bodies of water, rocks, and soils. The Kroll and Hunter processes extract the metal from its principal mineral ores. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst used to manufacture white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts, and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.
The surface of titanium metal and its alloys, like aluminum and magnesium, immediately oxidizes when exposed to air, forming a thin, non-porous passivation layer that shields the bulk metal from further oxidation or corrosion. This protective layer is initially only 1-2 nm thick, but it gradually thickens over four years to 25 nm. This layer gives Titanium a nearly platinum-level level of corrosion resistance.
Electron Configuration is the distribution of electrons in an element’s atomic orbitals. Electron Configuration of Titanium or Ti electron Configuration is the arrangement of electrons of Titanium atom in each orbit. The Electron Configuration for Titanium occurs in two ways, they are:
- The orbital arrangement of electrons (Bohr principle)
- The orbital arrangement of electrons (Aufbau principle)
Electron Configuration for Titanium (Bohr Principle)
In an atom, the electrons circle the nucleus in a circular motion. Shell or orbits are these elliptical routes. The number n represents these orbits [n = 1,2,3,4,…, the orbit’s serial number]. In Bohr Principle, there are four orbits. K, L, M, and N denote the four orbits. Furthermore, each orbit can hold a 2n2 number of electrons.
- The capacity of the K orbit to store electrons is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
- The L orbit’s electron carrying capacity is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
- In the M orbit, the greatest electron holding capacity is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
- In the N orbit, the maximum electron holding capacity is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
Titanium has an atomic number of 22, which means there are twenty-two electrons in a titanium atom. So, the first shell holds 2 electrons, the second one holds 8 electrons, and the third one holds 12 electrons.
Ti Electron Configuration (Aufbau Principle)
The Aufbau approach involves configuring electrons at the sub-energy level. According to the Aufbau principle, electrons in an atom will initially complete the lowest energy orbital before gradually progressing to the higher energy orbitals. The letters S, P, D, and F show the orbits.
Here is the step-by-step guide to writing the electron configuration of Titanium.
- We must first know how many electrons the Ar atom has to express the Ti electron configuration.
- Let us note that lithium contains 22 electrons in the electron configuration of Titanium.
- We’ll put all 22 electrons in orbitals around the nucleus of the Titanium atom when we write the Ti electron configuration.
- The Titanium’s initial two electrons enter the 1s orbital. S orbital holds a maximum of two electrons. Because the 1s orbital can only hold two electrons, and the 2s orbital in Titanium has two electrons.
- The energy of 4s orbital is less than that of 3d. So, the electron will enter the 4s orbital first and enter the 3d orbital when the 4s orbital is full.
- The method of entering electrons into orbitals through the Aufbau principle is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d.
- The first two electrons of Titanium enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital.
- The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons. So, the following six electrons enter the 2p orbital. The second orbit is now complete. So, the remaining electrons will enter the third orbit.
- Then two electrons will enter the 3s orbital of the third orbit, and the next six electrons will be in the 3p orbital. The 3p orbital is now complete.
- So, the next two electrons will enter the 4s orbital, and the remaining two will join the 3d orbital.
- Therefore, the titanium full electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2.
- The short electron configuration of titanium is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. When writing an electron configuration, you have to write serially.
Lastly, Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in Earth’s crust (0.63% by mass) and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present as oxides in most igneous rocks, in sediments derived from them, in living things, and in natural bodies of water. Of the 801 types of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained Titanium. In short, the electron configuration for Titanium is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. Titanium is as strong as steel but much less dense. It is, therefore, important as an alloying agent with many metals, including aluminum, molybdenum, and iron. The symbol is representative of the Titans of Greek mythology. It is based on early votive offering figurines.