Chlorine orbital diagram | Cl orbital Diagram

The Chlorine Orbital Diagram or cl orbital Diagram is the pictorial representation of electrons in an atom of Chlorine. Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and the atomic number 17. It is the second lightest member of the halogen elements or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the periodic table. Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish-yellow gas irritating the eyes and the respiratory system. It appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table, and its properties are mostly intermediate between them.

Chlorine plays an essential role in the experiments, which commonly involve the heating of chloride salts like ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac) and sodium chloride (common salt), producing various chemical substances containing Chlorine such as hydrogen chloride, mercury(II), chloride (corrosive sublimate), and hydrochloric acid (in the form of aqua regia).

Due to its high reactivity, all of the Chlorine in the Earth’s crust exists as ionic chloride compounds, including table salt. It ranks twenty-first in terms of chemical abundance in the Earth’s crust and is the second-most abundant halogen (after fluorine). However, the enormous chloride reserves in seawater dwarf these crustal deposits.

All known species of life require Chlorine, which comes from chloride ions. Other kinds of chlorine compounds are uncommon in living things, and synthetically created chlorinated organics can be anything from harmless to harmful. Organic compounds with Chlorine, including chlorofluorocarbons, have been linked to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. As part of the immune system’s response to germs, neutrophils’ oxidation of chloride ions produces trace amounts of elemental Chlorine.

Chlorine Orbital Diagram

Generally, an orbital diagram is a pictorial description of electrons in an atom. There are three major rules to determine where electrons go in a pinch. Aufbau Principle, the Pauli-Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule, etc., are the primary principles to configure the orbital Diagram.

How to write the Cl orbital diagram?

To create a chlorine orbital diagram, you first need to know Hund’s and Pauli’s exclusion principles. 

Hund’s principle states that electrons in different orbitals with the same energy would be positioned in such a way that they could be in the unpaired state of the maximum number, and the spin of the unpaired electrons will be one-way. However, Pauli’s exclusion principle states that the value of four quantum numbers of two electrons in an atom cannot be the same.

Henceforth, to write the cl orbital diagram, you have to do the electron configuration of Chlorine. There are two ways to perform the electron configuration of Chlorine, they are:

  • The orbital arrangement of electrons (Bohr principle)
  • The orbital arrangement of electrons (Aufbau principle)

According to Bohr Principle, electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed energy levels. Orbits further from the middle exist at higher energy levels. When electrons return to a lower energy level, they emit energy in the form of light. It follows the formula 2n2 in each orbit to fill the electrons. 

  • The electron storage capacity of the K orbit is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
  • The electron-carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
  • The maximum electron retention capacity in the M orbit is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
  • The greatest electron retention capacity in the N orbit is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.

On the other hand, Aufbau Principle states that the available atomic orbitals with the lowest energy levels are occupied before those with higher energy levels. It says that electrons are filled into nuclear orbitals in the increasing order of orbital energy level. 

Hence, the chlorine’s full electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. In short, it’s also written as [Ne] 3s2 3p5.

 

How to write the Cl orbital diagram?

To create a chlorine orbital diagram, you first need to know Hund’s and Pauli’s exclusion principles. 
Hund’s principle states that electrons in different orbitals with the same energy would be positioned in such a way that they could be in the unpaired state of the maximum number, and the spin of the unpaired electrons will be one-way. However, Pauli’s exclusion principle states that the value of four quantum numbers of two electrons in an atom cannot be the same.
Henceforth, to write the cl orbital diagram, you have to do the electron configuration of Chlorine. There are two ways to perform electron configuration of Chlorine, they are:

  • The orbital arrangement of electrons (Bohr principle)
  • The orbital arrangement of electrons (Aufbau principle)

According to Bohr Principle, electrons orbit the nucleus at fixed energy levels. Orbits further from the middle exist at higher energy levels. When electrons return to a lower energy level, they emit energy in the form of light. It follows the formula 2n2 in each orbit to fill the electrons. 

 

  • The electron storage capacity of the K orbit is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
  • The electron carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
  • The maximum electron retention capacity in the M orbit is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
  • The greatest electron retention capacity in the N orbit is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
    On the other hand, Aufbau Principle states that the available atomic orbitals with the lowest energy levels are occupied before those with higher energy levels. It says that electrons are filled into nuclear orbitals in the increasing order of orbital energy level.
    Hence, the chlorine’s full electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5. In short, its also written as [Ne] 3s2 3p5.

How many electrons, protons, and neutrons does Chlorine have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the middle. The atomic number of Chlorine is 17. The atomic number is the number of protons. That is, the number of protons in Chlorine is seventeen. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, a chlorine atom has a total of seventeen electrons.
The number of neutrons in an element is obtained from the difference between the number of atomic masses and the number of atoms. That is, neutron number (n) = nuclear mass number (A) – atomic number (Z)
We know that the atomic number of Chlorine is 17, and the atomic mass number is about 35(35.45u). Neutron (n) = 35 – 17 = 18. Therefore, the number of neutrons in Chlorine is 18.

How do you calculate the number of valence electrons in a chlorine atom?

To calculate the number of Valence electrons of a Chlorine atom is:

Step 1: Determining the total number of electrons in Chlorine
First, we need to know the total number of electrons in the chlorine atom. To see the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in Chlorine. And to see the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the chlorine element.

Step2: We need to perform electron configuration of Chlorine
This step is essential because, in this step, the electrons of Chlorine have to be arranged. The electron configuration of Chlorine shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and seven in the M shell. The first shell of Chlorine has two electrons, the second has eight electrons, and the 3rd shell has seven electrons.

Step 3: Determine the valence shell and calculate the total electrons
In the third step, we diagnose the valence shell. Valence Shell is the last shell after the electron configuration. The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called valence electrons. The electron configuration shows that the previous surface of Chlorine has seven electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of Chlorine are seven.

What is the valency of Chlorine?

Valency is the ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule. The number of unpaired electrons in an element’s last orbit is that element’s valency. The correct electron configuration of chlorine(Cl) in ground state will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3px2 3py2 3pz1.
The electron configuration shows that the last shell of the chlorine atom has an unpaired electron(3pz1). So the valency of Chlorine is 1. The oxidation states of chlorine change depending on the excitation. Oxidation states of chlorine are −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7.