Bismuth Electron Configuration or Bi electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in a Bismuth atom. It is a chemical element with the symbol Bi. Bismuth’s atomic number is 83. It is a post-transition metal, radioactive, and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter group 15 siblings, arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, and its sulfide and oxide forms are essential for commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. When freshly produced, it is a brittle metal with a silvery-white color, but surface oxidation can give it a colourful iridescent appearance due to thin-film interference. Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element and has one of the lowest thermal conductivity values among metals.
Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth. They are used in cosmetics, pigments, and a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, to treat diarrhea. Bismuth’s unusual propensity to expand as it solidifies is responsible for some of its uses, such as in the casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for heavy metals. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is increasing use of bismuth alloys (presently about a third of bismuth production) as a replacement for information.
It is a brittle metal with a dark, silver-pink hue, often with an iridescent oxide tarnish showing many colors from yellow to blue. Bismuth crystals’ spiral, stair-stepped structure results from a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges. The variations in the thickness of the oxide layer that forms on the surface of the crystal causes different wavelengths of light to interfere upon reflection, thus displaying a rainbow of colors. Bismuth burns with a blue flame when burned in oxygen, and its oxide forms yellow fumes.
Bismuth Atomic Number and Electron Configuration
Electron Configuration deals with the arrangement of electrons in an element’s atom. The bi Electron configuration can be represented in two ways, they are:
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Aufbau principle)
- The electrons’ orbital configuration (Bohr principle)
The electrons’ orbital configuration (Bohr principle)
The atom’s electrons revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. Shells are circular paths. These orbits are expressed by n. [n = 1,2,3,4 . . . The serial number of the orbit]. K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, and N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2.
- The electron storage capacity of the K orbit is 2n2 = 2 12 = 2 electrons.
- The electron-carrying capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 22 = 8 electrons.
- The maximum electron retention capacity in the M orbit is 2n2 = 2 32 = 18 electrons.
- The greatest electron retention capacity in the N orbit is 2n2 = 2 42 = 32 electrons.
Bismuth has an atomic number of 83, which means that every bismuth atom has 38 protons in its nucleus. The number of protons and electrons in a neutral bit is equal, so a neutral atom of bismuth would have 83 electrons.
The electrons' orbital configuration (Aufbau principle)
Aufbau’s principle states that the atom’s electrons will initially complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually advance to the higher energy orbitals. S, P, D, and F letters refer to the orbits simultaneously.
Atomic energy levels are divided into sub-energy classes. These lower energy levels are described as orbital. The sub-energy groups are represented by the letter “l.” L has a value range of 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels go by the labels s, p, d, and f.
The 4s orbital has lower energy than the 3d orbital. In other words, the electron will first enter the 4s orbital, and then, once the 4s orbital is full, it will enter the 3d orbital. Using the Aufbau principle, the Introduction of electrons are into orbitals in the following order: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d.
The first two electrons of bismuth enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital holds a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital. The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons. So, the following six electrons enter the 2p orbital. The second orbit is now complete. So, the remaining electrons will enter the third orbit. Then the two electrons enter the 3s orbital, and the next six electrons are in the 3p orbital of the third orbit.
The 3p orbital is now complete. So, the next two electrons enter the 4s orbital and the 3d orbital. The 3d orbital is now full. So, the following six electrons enter the 4p orbital. Then the next ten electrons enter the 4d orbital.
The 4d orbital is now complete. So, the next eight electrons enter the 5p and 6s orbital, and the next fourteen will enter the 4f orbital. The 4f orbital is now full of electrons. So, the next ten electrons will enter the 5d orbital, and the remaining three will join the 6p orbital.
Therefore, the bismuth electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p3. In short, the bi electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3.
Furthermore, the bismuth or bi electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p3 and[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Even though bismuth is virtually unseen, high-purity bismuth can form distinctive, colorful hopper crystals. It is relatively nontoxic and has a low melting point, just above 271 °C, so crystals may be grown using a household stove, although the resulting crystals will tend to be of lower quality than lab-grown crystals. Bismuth is stable in both dry and moist air at ordinary temperatures. When red-hot, it reacts with water to make bismuth(III) oxide. ie. 2 Bi + 3 H2O → Bi2O3 + 3 H2.